Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) occurs when the brain is no longer irrigated by blood. This sudden cessation of irrigation deprives the brain areas of oxygen. Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world, affecting nearly 15 million people in both developed and developing countries.
What is a stroke?
Most of the time, stroke occurs as a result of the lack of brain irrigation caused by an artery obstructed by the formation of a clot, is ischemic stroke. It can also be caused by cerebral hemorrhage after rupture of a blood vessel.
In 80% of cases, stroke occurs as a result of thrombosis of a cerebral artery and in 20% of cases, because of haemorrhage, the causes are:
In 50% of cases, the obstruction of an artery is due to the presence of lipids around its wall, it is atherosclerosis.
In 30% of cases, a clot that comes from another organ blocks the cerebral circulation, it is cerebral embolism.
In 20% of cases, stroke is caused by brain haemorrhage due to ruptured aneurysm, hypertension or brain tumor.
It is also possible that an artery is temporarily obstructed when the clot rapidly reabsorbs without causing lesions, it is a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The urgency of the treatment is also necessary because the risk of a new stroke within 24 hours is high.
Following a first stroke, the risk of relapse is estimated to be between 30% and 43% during the five years following the crisis. Generally, one in ten people totally recover from the stroke while the remaining nine are likely to suffer from lesions that will be more or less severe depending on the area affected and the time taken for medical care.
It is important to be able to recognize the symptoms of a stroke because early management can reduce the risk of mortality by 30% and limit the severity of the sequelae.
Symptoms of stroke
Although there are no early signs of stroke, it is possible to intervene as soon as the following symptoms appear:
Dizziness and loss of balance
Disorders of the motricity or even paralysis of a limb or a side, it is the opposite side to that of the brain lesion
Speech impediment and difficulty finding words and expressing oneself
Blurred vision of one eye or both eyes or sudden loss of vision
Numbness of face and inability to smile
Headache intense, frequent and accompanied by vomiting
A transient ischemic attack is also a warning signal because about a third of ischemic strokes are preceded by this accident.
If you experience one or more of these symptoms, contact emergency services promptly for medical attention. If the intervention is done quickly, the sequelae will be less severe.
If you are in the presence of a person who suffers from these symptoms, you can intervene while awaiting the arrival of a medical team.
Ask him to smile, to raise his arms and utter a series of simple words. If the person fails in these exercises, put him in the lateral position of safety by placing him on the side, head back, mouth open towards the ground so that he can not bite his tongue and that the tongue does not Does not interfere with the discharge of vomiting. Wait until the doctor arrives.
How to prevent stroke?
Stroke prevention can be avoided or avoided by taking some essential steps to a healthy lifestyle:
- A balanced diet that is free of too greasy and sweet foods, focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains, lean meats and potassium-rich foods
- Stopping Smoking
- The decrease or even the stoppage of alcohol consumption
- Regular physical activity
- Blood pressure monitoring and frequent medical follow-up
- Stress management
- Maintaining Your Healthy Weight
1st cause of disability in adults, 2nd cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease and 3rd cause of mortality after cancers and myocardial infarction
3 out of 4 people with stroke are over 65 but the number of young people is increasing due to diabetes and obesity.